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Compare the experience of industrialization in the West with that of the Indian experience.

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• Unlike Britain where the impact of industrialisation led to more people moving into urban areas, in India the initial impact of the same British industrialisation led to more people moving into agriculture.

• Just as manufacturing boomed in Britain, traditional exports of cotton and silk manufactures from India declined in the face of Manchester competition. This period also saw the further decline of cities such as Surat and Masulipatnam.

• When the British took over Indian states, towns like Thanjavur, Dhaka, and Murshidabad lost their courts and, therefore, some of their artisans and court gentry.

• Industrialization in the west was accompanied by the growth of a western middle class. However, in India, it could not create any genuine middle class. We know only too well that the zamindars become parasites in land and the graduates job hunters.