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‘Some of the most significant responses to the challenge of environmental degradation have come from the environmental movements’. Justify the statement with special reference to movements against extraction of earth and against mega- dams.

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I) Extraction of Earth:

a) The mineral industry’s extraction of earth,its use of chemicals,its pollution of waterways and land, its displacement of community continue to invite criticism and resistance in various parts of the globe.

b) One example is of Philippines where a vast network of groups and organisations campaign against the Western Mining Corporation ,an Australia based multinational company . Much opposition to the company in its own country , Australia is based on anti nuclear sentiments and advocacy for the basic rights of Australian indigenous peoples.

II) Mega- dams:

a) Today, wherever a mega dam is being built in the world, one is likely to find an environmental movement opposing it. The early 1980s saw the first anti- dam movement launched in the North, namely, the campaign to save the Franklin river and its surrounding forest in Australia.

b) India has had some of the leading anti-dam, pro- river movements.Narmada Bachao Andolan is one of these best known movements.
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