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Elucidate the phenomena of modernity.

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• ‘Modernity’ assumes that local ties and parochial perspectives give way to universal commitments and cosmopolitan attitudes;

• that the truths of utility, calculation, and science take precedence over those of the emotions, the sacred, and the non-rational;

• that the individual rather than the group be the primary unit of society and politics;

• that the associations in which men live and work be based on choice not birth;

• that mastery rather than fatalism orient their attitude toward the material and human environment;

• that identity be chosen and achieved, not ascribed and affirmed;

• that work be separated from family, residence, and community in bureaucratic organisation